History of Fitness

Fat and muscle
We cannot physiologically change fat to muscle. For example, although doing lots of repetitions squeezing your knees together on a hip adductor machine creates a feeling of using this muscle group, it will not burn the fat deposits off the targeted area. What will occur is that with training, the muscles become stronger and larger, which may be contrary to what many women may be trying to achieve in attempting to sculpt leaner-looking legs. Another example is trying to burn off excessive abdominal fat, which increases the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. No amount of crunches will burn off abdominal fat directly. Increased physical activity in general, exercise and good nutrition are key to losing fat. Although there’s no way to induce spot reduction in fat that is stored under the skin, moderate to high-intensity cardiovascular training is very effective in reducing fat. This includes running, skipping, cycling and boxing. We’ve all heard women say: “I don’t want to lift weights because I don’t want to look muscly.” But it’s really not that easy to put on significant muscle mass. Many bodybuilders will attest to the amount of work and overfeeding required to promote muscle growth. So the idea that weight training will make women bulky is a fallacy.Type your paragraph here.

Fitness & Exercise

Different forms of exercises are practiced for the fitness of the body and also for health. It is a common belief that targeted exercise reduces fat in specific parts of the body —for example, that exercising muscles around the belly reduces fat in the belly. This, however, is now proven to be a misconception; these exercises may change body shape by improving muscle tone but any fat reduction is not specific to the locale. Spot reduction exercises are not useful unless you plan proper exercise regime to lose overall calories. But exercising reduces fat throughout the body, and where fat is stored depends on hormones. Liposuction is surgery commonly used in developed societies to remove fat from the body.

Benefits of Regular Exercise

Fitness, as we know it today, seems to be a relatively modern invention something that started vaguely in the 70's with jogging and jazzercise. But physical exercise obviously goes back much further than that, to a time where people wouldn't have thought of it as working out, but rather a way of life. Centuries and millennia ago, they did not have all the machines and weights and gyms that we have today, and yet they were in better shape than we are. To understand why this is, how we got to our modern fitness culture, and what we have lost along the way, it's helpful to take a look at the history of exercise. From the time of the primitive man until about 2500 B.C. athleticism was used as a necessary tool for hunting and gathering.  As time progressed towards the birth of Jesus, fitness was not solely used for sustainability but became necessary in order to maintain the biggest empires in the world, through military strength. The Greek-Macedonian Empire is still today regarded as one of the fittest empires to date.  In Greece, the Spartans were and still are viewed as the personification of extreme athleticism.  Because of this, the Spartan army was one of the deadliest armies the world has ever known. By contrast, the Chinese and Indian empires used athleticism not only for military purposes but also for health.  Their political and philosophical leaders, including Confucius were encouraging people to partake in exercise in order to prevent certain diseases like heart disease and diabetes. They discovered that through yoga and martial arts, they not only became fitter, but also healthier- this was the crucial breakthrough in the history of mankind.  For the first time, fitness became a known to cure many physical ailments. During the Renaissance period, an intellectual expansion occurred, so did a curriculum of physical fitness and philosophy. Many intellectual thinkers of the time, such as John Locke, Martin Luther, and Richard Mulcaster maintained the positive correlation between being fit and intellect. In much the same way as primitive man, the barbarian tribes from Northern Europe depended on physical fitness for survival. Their lifestyle consisted of hunting and gathering food and tending to cattle. Therefore, despite the cultural and intellectual setbacks that occurred with the fall of the Roman Empire, fitness actually experienced a revival during the Dark and Middle Ages.
Fitness History of India
In India, individual pursuit of fitness was discouraged as the religious beliefs of Buddhism and Hinduism emphasized spirituality and tended to neglect development of the body. Consequently, the importance of fitness within society in general was relatively low. However, an exercise program similar to Chinese Cong Fu gymnastics developed, while still conforming to religious beliefs, known as Yoga. Though its exact origin has yet to be identified, Yoga has existed for at least the past 5000 years. Translated, Yoga means union, and refers to one of the classic systems of Hindu philosophy that strives to bring together and personally develop the body, mind, and spirit. Yoga was originally developed by Hindu priests who lived frugal lifestyles characterized by discipline and meditation. Through observing and mimicking the movement and patterns of animals, priests hoped to achieve the same balance with nature that animals seemed to possess. This aspect of Yoga, known as Hatha Yoga, is the form with which Westerners are most familiar and is defined by a series of exercises in physical posture and breathing patterns. Bedsides balance with nature, ancient Indian philosophers recognized health benefits of Yoga including proper organ functioning and whole well-being. These health benefits have also been acknowledged in the modern-day United States, with an estimated 12 million individuals regularly participating in Yoga. The concept of physical fitness is truly an ancient one embedded in Hinduism where physical perfection is imperative for full realization of one’s self – ‘dehvada’ – along with the meditative aspect. Today, what the world calls “holistic”. Much like Greek mythology, Indian Gods and Goddesses, royalty and nobility (including women) had to be well trained in the physical disciplines to attain strength and valour. Archery, wrestling, weight lifting, chariot racing, swimming, sword fighting (fencing as we now know it), ball games, equitation (equestrian) etc were common and find ample mention in our ancient texts. Not to mention Yogic practices. Hindu Yogis needed to demonstrate supreme endurance in their practice and not all were emaciated beings. They were often well versed in the art of self defense, given their isolated sojourns far and wide. The Naga sadhus even today are revered for their out of the ordinary self discipline and power. Chatur Anga/Shatranj (Chess), Pachisi (Ludo), Moksha Patam (Snakes and Ladders), Kridapatram (Card Games) and Polo were taken from the Indian continent and spread across the world. Sports like Kho Kho and Kabaddi should remind you some of their parallel western forms. Jallikattu (bull taming), Mallakhamba (Pole Gymnastics), Ball Badminton etc are just some ancient sports still played that are strikingly similar to their western versions.  Rather, the reverse! Yoga needs no introduction. It has taken the world by storm and has perhaps more versions than any other practice. Kalaripayattu – the ancient Indian martial art from South India, could perhaps stake claim to giving birth to some very well known martial arts of the Eastern world (as indicated by historical texts). This martial art travelled to countries of Far East along with the Buddhist religion, and in all likelihood Sothern India is where martial arts originated and travelled outwards. It includes extensive body movements as well as use of weapons and   incorporates moves and flows mimicking the animal kingdom. It ties the offensive with the defensive and the practice draws upon meditative centering to attain complete focus and power.​

Body weight training
It's easy to see why no-equipment workouts are so popular: They're relatively easy to learn, they can be modified to suit any ability level, and they can be done just about anywhere. Plus, body weight exercises are an efficient way to get fit for free. (That’s probably why the method has been ranked in the survey since 2013.) Pushups and pull-ups are classic bodyweight moves, but there are plenty more to choose from, like squats, lunges, and planks, just to name a few.
HIIT's helps you torch calories fast by alternating quick bursts of high-intensity exercise with short rest periods. It can be found in all types of workouts, from Pilates to CrossFit and boot camp classes. “High profile fitness companies are huge proponents of this form of exercise. To try a high-intensity interval training workout yourself, spend 20 to 30 minutes total combining repeated shorts bursts of work with short break periods, like 45 seconds of burpees with 15 seconds of rest followed by 45 seconds of squats. A guided option, HIIT workout can burn around 190 calories per session and will keep your metabolism fired up long after you finish the routine.
Educated, certified, and experienced fitness professionals
The number of people who want to become personal trainers keeps growing, and they have more options than ever to earn accreditation. Not only is there continued growth in college and university programs, but there are more than 250 third-party certification organizations committed to teaching personal trainers best practices. As for the future of personal trainers and fitness professionals, the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts these occupations to only increase in popularity, with employment of fitness professionals to rise 8% between 2014 and 2024.
Strength training
Gone are the days when the biggest fitness buffs out there stuck to cardio. Today, they know they can't miss strength training's science-backed benefits, such as boosting longevity, building muscle mass, and protecting against diabetes, back pain, and more. Plus, a growing number of women, in particular, have come to realize that lifting weights won't necessarily make them bulky, and in fact will help them burn more fat and boost metabolism.
Exercise Is Medicine
Regular exercise lowers your risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, dementia, and other chronic diseases, and serves as a powerful stress-reducer and mood-booster. That's why the ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine) and the American Medical Association co-launched Exercise Is Medicine, a global movement that encourages physicians to refer patients to fitness professionals in their communities, and likewise, encourages fitness professionals to make connections with physicians. With health care costs on the rise, and with the future of the U.S. health insurance industry uncertain, using exercise as a preventive health tool is perhaps more important than ever.  
Personal training
Personal training is a perennial trend and not much has changed about it over the years—these professionals generally provide one-on-one sessions that provide a more immersive and personalized experience for fitness seekers. But one important shift is happening in the industry: More education. A growing number of fitness professionals are seeking out formal education in kinesiology and exercise science, and credentialing is becoming more important to the facilities that employ them.  Quality of trainers has increased along with the sheer number of trainers available, says Thompson, because certifications and qualifications weed out the trainers who aren't top-notch in such a saturated market. 

For most of us, heading into a gym can lead to confusion about what exercises to do. If you want to change the shape of your body, can selecting certain exercises really work?
Once we reach adulthood, our bone structure and proportions are largely fixed. Essentially, the length of your collar bones versus the size of your pelvis, and the length of your body compared to the length of your legs are big factors in determining proportions and aesthetic beauty.
According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, those people with a larger waist (apple shaped) have higher health risks than those who carry excess weight on the hips and thighs (pear shaped). People with apple shaped bodies who carry excess weight are at greater risk of high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol.
However, we can use exercise to enhance our body shape and appearance, as well as increase muscle and bone strength.

Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit. Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten. Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations. This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. strength or endurance. A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training. A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills, and on age or health-related needs such as bone health. Many sources also cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness. This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging. Working out can also help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals. Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases. 

What is Fitness?

Change your body shape

Regular exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health. It has many benefits, including improving your overall health and fitness, and reducing your risk for many chronic diseases. There are many different types of exercise; it is important that you pick the right types for you. Most people benefit from a combination of them. Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Examples include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, and biking. Strength, or resistance training, exercises make your muscles stronger. Some examples are lifting weights and using a resistance band. Balance exercises can make it easier to walk on uneven surfaces and help prevent falls. To improve your balance, try tai chi or exercises like standing on one leg. Flexibility exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Yoga and doing various stretches can make you more flexible. Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at first. But you can start slowly, and break your exercise time into chunks. Even doing ten minutes at a time is fine. You can work your way up to doing the recommended amount of exercise. How much exercise you need depends on your age and health. Other things that you can do to make the most of your workouts include Choosing activities that work all the different parts of the body, including your core (muscles around your back, abdomen, and pelvis). Good core strength improves balance and stability and helps to prevent lower back injury. Choosing activities that you enjoy. It's easier to make exercise a regular part of your life if you have fun doing it. Exercising safely, with proper equipment, to prevent injuries. Also, listen to your body and don't overdo it. Giving yourself goals. The goals should challenge you, but also be realistic. It's also helpful to reward yourself when you reach your goals. The rewards could be something big, like new workout gear, or something smaller, such as movie tickets.